IRSEM published it's main strategic papers in this collection.
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- Report No. 86 - 2021
"DEFENCE COOPERATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY"
Authors : Camille Morel and Friederike Richter
This study deals with the diversification of defence cooperation in the 21st century and proposes a typology for today’s cooperation. It classifies defence cooperation schemes according to i) their level of cooperation (bi-, mini- or multilateral), ii) their objectives (specific or general), iii) their length in time (transient or permanent), iv) their domain (related to operational aspects or investments), and v) their framework (institutionalised or not). Given the variety of cooperation forms, this study argues that it is necessary to examine their goals. More specifically, do states cooperate to ensure greater legitimacy or greater efficacy? Is it possible to combine the two? If so, what types and formats of cooperation should be favoured to achieve both efficacy and legitimacy? The study covers different defence cooperation schemes in the 21st century and questions their legitimacy and efficacy while taking into account the regional specificities of the cases being analysed.
- Report No. 80 - 2021
SAUDI ARABIA - MOHAMMED BIN SALMAN’S GAMBLE ON YOUTH
Author : Fatiha Dazi-Héni
This study examines the way in which Saudi Prince Mohammed Bin Salman (MBS), designated heir to the throne in 2017, is putting the kingdom’s youth at the heart of his economic and social transformation program, Vision 2030. Lacking support from his family, apart from that of his father, King Salman, which bestows upon him a measure of kingly legitimacy, the Prince chooses to rely on the majority class of the population, young people. He is using the enthusiasm among urban youth for his reform plans to consolidate his power through a communications strategy based on new technologies. By claiming to embody the aspirations of Saudi youth, MBS is laying the groundwork for a new type of governance, which is studied here in parallel with perceptions and expectations among a sample of young urban Saudis in Riyadh. Looking beyond the ultra-repressive authoritarian approach that characterizes the Prince’s governance, this study shows that by gambling on the allegiance of connected young urbanites, MBS is preparing his long-term political future. By reforming school curricula, prioritizing certain career paths, promoting a nationalist narrative and an Islam of the “righteous path”, he is turning away from Wahhabism in order to mold young urban Saudis via Vision 2030.
- Report IRSEM No.75 - 2020
"THE GEOPOLITICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS ON THE SECURITY AND STABILITY OF CYBERSPACE"
Authors: François Delerue, Frédérick Douzet et Aude Géry
International law and norms of responsible behaviour are at the heart of the discussions at the United Nations (UN) on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security. The purpose of the present study is, therefore, to analyse – and provide food for thought on – the place of international law within the framework of the two processes underway at the UN, the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) and the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security (GGE). It will also explain how international law is being instrumentalised in the present negotiations.
The study is comprised of three parts. First, it sets out the context in which these two processes arose, their respective mandates, and the place of international law in their work. Secondly, it examines the ambiguities and consequences associated with the distinction between norms of responsible behaviour and international law. Finally, the last part focuses on the interpretation of certain rules of international law, such as, on the one hand, the responses authorised by international law in reaction to a cyber operation and, on the other hand, the principle of sovereignty. The study then analyses the geopolitical motivations behind this.
- Report IRSEM No. 69 - 2019
"CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY-CENTRIC WARFARE: INSIGHTS FROM THE ISRAELI EXPERIENCE"
Authors: Jonathan (Yoni) Shimshoni and Ariel (Eli) Levite
Shimshoni and Levite offer a fresh look at the transformation of warfare, focusing on its evolution from post-Westphalian struggle predominantly taking place between opposing military organizations into society centric confrontations. They submit that all contemporary opponents of the West have made the social dimension central to warfare, de facto pursuing society-centric strategies even when they apply traditional force. They argue that several Western states currently similarly engage in such warfare, but without fully admitting as much or effectively adjusting their strategies, doctrines and force structures. Building on their recent expose in Survival of the theoretical and historical underpinnings of this phenomenon, the authors turn to the rich and varied Israeli warfighting experience for additional insights into the nature and dynamics of contemporary societycentric confrontation.
In this paper the authors examine the societal warfare phenomenon in four Arab-Israeli cases: Ben Gurion’s formulation of Israel’s foundational grand strategy and doctrine; the Egyptian-Israeli War of Attrition; Israel’s ongoing confrontation with Hamas; and with Hezbollah these past two decades. They conclude with observations on factors that tend to escalate and increase the undesired societization of warfare, discussing critical implications for the study and practice of strategy.
- Étude n° 59 - 2018
"France and Poland Facing the Evolution of the Security Environment"
Authors: Barbara JANKOWSKI and Amélie ZIMA (eds.)
The purpose of this study is to propose an analysis of the security environment in the late 2010s. For several years now, the states of the European continent have been facing renewed tensions and political uncertainties. On the one hand, the annexation of Crimea, which constitutes a major break in respect of international law, and the war in the Ukrainian Donbass impact the European stability. On the other hand, the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States has raised many questions and instilled doubt about solidarity among allies. Brexit poses a challenge to the construction of the European Union since, for the first time, a state has used article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty allowing the exit of a state, which means that the debate on the EU’s future no longer only concerns the practical criteria for deepening European integration but also the appropriateness of this integration. However, the initiatives of European states demonstrate their resilience and their ability to respond to security challenges.
- Étude n° 41 - 2015
"Defending Europe? A Stocktaking Of French and German Visions for European Defense"
Author: Barbara KUNZ
- Étude No. 39 (En) - 2015
"Parliaments and Democratic Legitimacy of the Common Security and Defence Policy Major"
Authors : General (2S) de Langlois M. and Sarah Canto
- Étude No. 30 (En) - 2014
"Access to the global commons and grand strategies : a shift in global interplay"
Author : Frédéric RAMEL